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"C" horizon: Soil layer made up of parent rock material.
Cadmium (Cd): A heavy metal that accumulates in the environment.
Cambium: A thin layer of living dividing cells just under the bark of trees. This layer gives rise to the tree's secondary growth.
Cap: A layer of clay, or other impermeable material installed over the top of a closed landfill to prevent entry of rainwater and minimize leachate.
Capacity Assurance Plan: (CAP) A statewide plan which supports a state's ability to manage the hazardous waste generated within its boundaries over a twenty year period.
Construction Assistance Program: (CAP) The unit within DEQ that administers the loan programs which are included in the Commonwealth's revolving loan fund (Virginia Clean Water Revolving Loan Fund). Loan programs which are administered by the DEQ Construction Assistance Program include: Wastewater, Brownfield, Land Conservation and Agricultural BMP projects. Officially, the Construction Assistance Program is the Department of Environmental Quality's Office of Construction Assistance.
Capillary Action: Movement of water through very small spaces due to molecular forces called capillary forces.
Capillary Fringe: The porous material just above the water table which may hold water by capillarity (a property of surface tension that draws water upwards) in the smaller void spaces.
Capture Efficiency: The fraction of organic vapors generated by a process that are directed to an abatement or recovery device.
Carbon Absorber: An add-on control device that uses activated carbon to absorb volatile organic compounds from a gas stream. (The VOCs are later recovered from the carbon.)
Carbon Adsorption: A treatment system that removes contaminants from ground water or surface water by forcing it through tanks containing activated carbon treated to attract the contaminants.
Carbon Monoxide (CO): A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fossil fuel combustion.
Carcinogen: Any substance that can cause or aggravate cancer.
Cask: A thick-walled container (usually lead) used to transport radioactive material. Also called a coffin.
Catalyst: A substance that changes the speed or yield of a chemical reaction without being consumed or chemically changed by the chemical reaction.
Catalytic Converter: An air pollution abatement device that removes pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, either by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water or reducing them to nitrogen.
Catalytic Incinerator: A control device that oxidizes volatile organic compounds by using a catalyst to promote the combustion process. Catalytic incinerators require lower temperatures than conventional thermal incinerators, thus saving fuel and other costs.
Categorical Exclusion: 1. A class of actions which either individually or cumulatively would not have a significant effect on the human environment and therefore would not require preparation of an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy Act. 2. For wastewater loan projects which meet certain specified criteria a loan recipient may request a Categorical Exclusion from the Environmental Assessment. If DEQ grants a Categorical Exclusion, the loan recipient does not have to prepare and submit an Environmental Assessment. Categorical Exclusions are relative to projects which do not have significant environmental impacts due to the nature of the work and/or the size of the project.
Categorical Pretreatment Standard: A technology-based effluent limitation for an industrial facility discharging into a municipal sewer system. Analogous in stringency to Best Availability Technology for direct dischargers.
Cathodic Protection: A technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
Cells: 1. In solid waste disposal, holes where waste is dumped, compacted, and covered with layers of dirt on a daily basis. 2. The smallest structural part of living matter capable of functioning as an independent unit.
Cellulose: A complex carbohydrate that constitutes the chief part of the cell walls of higher plants and yields fiber for many products.
Cementitious: Densely packed and nonfibrous friable materials.
Central Collection Point: Location where a generator of regulated medical waste consolidates wastes originally generated at various locations in his facility. The wastes are gathered together for treatment on-site or for transportation elsewhere for treatment and/or disposal. This term could also apply to community hazardous waste collections, industrial and other waste management systems.
Centrifugal Collector: A mechanical system using centrifugal force to remove aerosols from a gas stream or to remove water from sludge.
Channelization: Straightening and deepening streams so water will move faster, a marsh-drainage tactic that can interfere with waste assimilation capacity, disturb fish and wildlife habitats, and aggravate flooding.
Characteristic: Any one of the four categories used in defining hazardous waste: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity.
Characterization of Ecological Effects: Part of ecological risk assessment that evaluates ability of a stressor to cause adverse effects under given circumstances.
Characterization of Exposure: Portion of an ecological risk assessment that evaluates interaction of a stressor with one or more ecological entities.
Check-Valve Tubing Pump: Water sampling tool also referred to as a water Pump.
Chemical Compound: A distinct and pure substance formed by the union or two or more elements in definite proportion by weight.
Chemical Element: A fundamental substance comprising one kind of atom; the simplest form of matter.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds, both organic and inorganic, in water.
Chemical Stressors: Chemicals released to the environment through industrial waste, auto emissions, pesticides, and other human activity that can cause illnesses and even death in plants and animals.
Chemical Treatment: Any one of a variety of technologies that use chemicals or a variety of chemical processes to treat waste.
Chemosterilant: A chemical that controls pests by preventing reproduction.
Chisel Plowing: Preparing croplands by using a special implement that avoids complete inversion of the soil as in conventional plowing. Chisel plowing can leave a protective cover or crops residues on the soil surface to help prevent erosion and improve filtration.
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: 1. Chemicals containing only chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen. These include a class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, Mirex, hexachloride, and toxaphene. Other examples include TCE, used as an industrial solvent. 2. Any chlorinated organic compounds including chlorinated solvents such as dichloromethane, trichloromethylene, chloroform.
Chlorinated Solvent: An organic solvent containing chlorine atoms(e.g. methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloromethane). Uses of chlorinated solvents are include aerosol spray containers, in highway paint, and dry cleaning fluids.
Chlorination: The application of chlorine to drinking water, sewage or industrial waste to disinfect or to oxidize undesirable compounds.
Chlorinator: A device that adds chlorine, in gas or liquid form, to water or sewage to kill infectious bacteria.
Chlorine-Contact Chamber: That part of a water treatment plant where effluent is disinfected by chlorine.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): A family of inert, nontoxic, and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. Because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy ozone. (See: fluorocarbons.)
Chlorophenoxy: A class of herbicides that may be found in domestic water supplies and cause adverse health effects.
Chlorosis: Discoloration of normally green plant parts caused by disease, lack of nutrients, or various air pollutants.
Cholinesterase: An enzyme found in animals that regulates nerve impulses by the inhibition of acetylcholine. Cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.
Chromium: (See: heavy metals.)
Chronic Daily Intake: Exposure expressed as mass of substance contacted per unit body weight per unit time, averaged over a long period of time (as a Superfund program guideline, seven years to a lifetime).
Chronic Effect: An adverse effect on a human or animal in which symptoms recur frequently or develop slowly over a long period of time.
Chronic Exposure: Multiple exposures occurring over an extended period of time or over a significant fraction of an animal's or human's lifetime (usually seven years to a lifetime.)
Chronic Toxicity: The capacity of a substance to cause long-term poisonous health effects in humans, animals, fish, and other organisms. (See: acute toxicity.)
Circle of Influence: The circular outer edge of a depression produced in the water table by the pumping of water from a well. (See: cone of depression.)
Cistern: Small tank or storage facility used to store water for a home or farm; often used to store rain water.
Clarification: Clearing action that occurs during wastewater treatment when solids settle out. This is often aided by centrifugal action and chemically induced coagulation in wastewater.
Clarifier: A tank in which solids settle to the bottom and are subsequently removed as sludge.
Class I Area: Under the U. S. Clean Air Act., a Class I area is one in which visibility is protected more stringently than under the national ambient air quality standards; includes national parks, wilderness areas, monuments, and other areas of special national and cultural significance.
Class I Substance: One of several groups of chemicals with an ozone depletion potential of 0.2 or higher, including CFCS, Halons, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Methyl Chloroform (listed in the Clean Air Act), and HBFC's and Ethyl Bromide (added by EPA regulations). (See: Global warming potential.)
Class II Substance: A substance with an ozone depletion potential of less than 0.2. All HCFCs are currently included in this classification. (See: Global warming potential.)
Clay Soil: Soil material containing more than 40 percent clay, less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent silt.
Clean Coal Technology: 1. Any technology not in widespread use prior to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This Act will achieve significant reductions in pollutants associated with the burning of coal. 2. A process by which coal is physically or chemically treated to remove some of its sulfur so as to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions.
Clean Fuels: Blends or substitutes for gasoline fuels, including compressed natural gas, methanol, ethanol, and liquefied petroleum gas.
Clean Water Act (CWA): (Formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972.) The Clean Water Act contains a number of provisions to restore and maintain the quality of the nation's water resources.
Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: A document that systematically evaluates the relative risk, performance, and cost trade-offs of technological alternatives; serves as a repository for all the technical data (including methodology and results) developed by a pollution prevention or education project.)
Cleanup: Actions taken to deal with a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance that could affect humans and/or the environment. The term "cleanup" is sometimes used interchangeably with the terms remedial action, removal action, response action, or corrective action.
Clear Cut: Harvesting all the trees in one area at one time, a practice that can encourage fast rainfall or snowmelt runoff, erosion, sedimentation of streams and lakes, and flooding, and destroys vital habitat.
Clear Well: A reservoir for storing filtered water of sufficient quantity to prevent the need to vary the filtration rate with variations in demand. Also used to provide chlorine contact time for disinfection.
Climate Change (also referred to as 'global climate change'): The term 'climate change' is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but because the Earth's climate is never static, the term is more properly used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some cases, 'climate change' has been used synonymously with the term, 'global warming'; scientists however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also include natural changes in climate. (See: global warming.)
Cloning: In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene.
Closed-Loop Recycling: The act of collecting, remaking, and purchasing the remade material which can be used and re-collected again.
Closure: The procedure a landfill operator must follow when a landfill reaches its legal capacity for solid ceasing acceptance of solid waste and placing a cap on the landfill site.
Co-fire: Burning of two fuels in the same combustion unit; e.g., coal and natural gas, or oil and coal.
Coagulation: Clumping of particles in wastewater to settle out impurities, often induced by chemicals such as lime, alum, and iron salts.
Coal Gasification: Conversion of coal to a gaseous product by one of several available technologies.
Coastal Zone: Lands and waters adjacent to the coast that exert an influence on the uses of the sea and its ecology, or whose uses and ecology are affected by the sea.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): Document that codifies all rules of the executive departments and agencies of the federal government. It is divided into fifty volumes, known as titles. Title 40 of the CFR (referenced as 40 CFR) lists all environmental regulations.
Coefficient of Haze (COH): A measurement of visibility interference in the atmosphere.
Cogeneration: The consecutive generation of useful thermal and electric energy from the same fuel source.
Coke Oven: An industrial process which converts coal into coke, one of the basic materials used in blast furnaces for the conversion of iron ore into iron.
Cold Temperature Carbon Monoxide: A standard for automobile emissions of carbon monoxide emissions to be met at a low temperature (i.e. 20 degrees Fahrenheit). Conventional automobile catalytic converters are not efficient in cold weather until they warm up.
Coliform Index: A rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal bacteria.
Coliform Organism: Microorganisms found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Their presence in water indicates fecal pollution and potentially adverse contamination by pathogens. (See: bacteria.)
Collector: Public or private hauler that collects nonhazardous waste and recyclable materials from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial sources. (See: hauler.)
Collector Sewers: Pipes used to collect and carry wastewater from individual sources to an interceptor sewer that will carry it to a treatment facility.
Colloids: Very small, finely divided solids (that do not dissolve) that remain dispersed in a liquid for a long time due to their small size and electrical charge.
Combined Sewers: A sewer system that carries both sewage and storm-water runoff. Normally, its entire flow goes to a waste treatment plant, but during a heavy storm, the volume of water may be so great as to cause overflows of untreated mixtures of storm water and sewage into receiving waters. Storm-water runoff may also carry toxic chemicals from industrial areas or streets into the sewer system.
Combined Sewer Overflows: Discharge of a mixture of storm water and domestic waste when the flow capacity of a sewer system is exceeded during rainstorms.
Combustion: 1. Burning, or rapid oxidation, accompanied by release of energy in the form of heat and light. 2. Refers to controlled burning of waste, in which heat chemically alters organic compounds, converting into stable inorganics such as carbon dioxide and water.
Combustion Chamber: The actual compartment where waste is burned in an incinerator.
Combustion Product: Substance produced during the burning or oxidation of a material.
Command Post: Facility located at a safe distance upwind from an accident site, where the on-scene coordinator, responders, and technical representatives make response decisions, deploy manpower and equipment, maintain liaison with news media, and handle communications.
Command-and-Control Regulations: Specific requirements prescribing how to comply with specific standards defining acceptable levels of pollution.
Comment Period: Time provided for the public to review and comment on a proposed EPA action or rulemaking after publication in the Federal Register.
Commercial Waste: All solid waste emanating from business establishments such as stores, markets, office buildings, restaurants, shopping centers, and theaters.
Commercial Waste Management Facility: A treatment, storage, disposal, or transfer facility which accepts waste from a variety of sources, as compared to a private facility which normally manages a limited waste stream generated by its own operations.
Commingled Recyclables: Mixed recyclables that are collected together.
Comminuter: A machine that shreds or pulverizes solids to make waste treatment easier.
Comminution: Mechanical shredding or pulverizing of waste. Used in both solid waste management and wastewater treatment.
Common Sense Initiative: Voluntary program to simplify environmental regulation to achieve cleaner, cheaper, smarter results, starting with six major industry sectors.
Community: In ecology, an assemblage of populations of different species within a specified location in space and time. Sometimes, a particular subgrouping may be specified, such as the fish community in a lake or the soil arthropod community in a forest.
Community Involvement: The continuous strengthening of opportunities for the public to participate with government agencies in significant environmental decisions and actions.
Community Meeting: An informal meeting at a public location where interested citizens can discuss environmental issues with DEQ representatives.
Community Water System: A public water system which serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.
Compaction: Reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping.
Comparative Risk Assessment: Process that generally uses the judgment of experts to predict effects and set priorities among a wide range of environmental problems.
Complete Treatment: A method of treating water that consists of the addition of coagulant chemicals, flash mixing, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. Also called conventional filtration.
Compliance Coal: Any coal that emits less than 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu when burned. Also known as low sulfur coal.
Compliance Coating: A coating whose volatile organic compound content does not exceed that allowed by regulation.
Compliance Monitoring: Collection and evaluation of data, including self-monitoring reports, and verification to show whether pollutant concentrations and loads contained in permitted discharges are in compliance with the limits and conditions specified in the permit.
Compliance Schedule: A negotiated agreement between a pollution source and a government agency that specifies dates and procedures by which a source will reduce emissions and, thereby, comply with a regulation.
Composite Sample: A series of water samples taken over a given period of time and weighted by flow rate.
Compost: The relatively stable humus material that is produced from a composting process in which bacteria in soil mixed with garbage and degradable trash break down the mixture into organic fertilizer.
Composting: The controlled biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically.
Composting Facilities: 1. An offsite facility where the organic component of municipal solid waste is decomposed under controlled conditions; 2.an aerobic process in which organic materials are ground or shredded and then decomposed to humus in windrow piles or in mechanical digesters, drums, or similar enclosures.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): An alternative fuel for motor vehicles; considered one of the cleanest because of low hydrocarbon emissions and its vapors are relatively non-ozone producing. However, vehicles fueled with CNG do emit a significant quantity of nitrogen oxides.
Concentration: The relative amount of a substance mixed with another substance. An example is five ppm of carbon monoxide in air or 1 mg/l of iron in water.
Condensate: 1.Liquid formed when warm landfill gas cools as it travels through a collection system. 2. Water created by cooling steam or water vapor.
Condensate Return System: System that returns the heated water condensing within steam piping to the boiler and thus saves energy.
Conditionally Exempt Generators (CE): Persons or enterprises which produce less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per month. Exempt from most regulation, they are required merely to determine whether their waste is hazardous, notify appropriate state or local agencies, and ship it by an authorized transporter to a permitted facility for proper disposal.
Conductance: A rapid method of estimating the dissolved solids content of water supply by determining the capacity of a water sample to carry an electrical current. Conductivity is a measure of the ability of a solution to carry and electrical current.
Conductivity: A measure of the ability of a solution to carry an electrical current.
Cone of Depression: A depression in the water table that develops around a pumped well.
Cone of Influence: The depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table by the pumping of water from a well.
Confined Aquifer: An aquifer in which ground water is confined under pressure which is significantly greater than atmospheric pressure.
Consent Order: A negotiated order issued to an owner of a facility to perform specific actions to ensure operation is in compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
Conservation: Preserving and renewing, when possible, human and natural resources. The use, protection, and improvement of natural resources according to principles that will ensure their highest economic or social benefits. The care and protection (wise use) of natural resources from loss and waste.
Conservation Easement: Easement restricting a landowner to land uses that are compatible with long-term conservation and environmental values.
Constituent(s) of Concern: Specific chemicals that are identified for evaluation in the site assessment process
Construction and Demolition Waste: Waste building materials, dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble resulting from construction, remodeling, repair, and demolition of homes, commercial buildings and other structures and pavements. May contain lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances.
Consumptive Water Use: Water removed from available supplies without return to a water resources system, e.g. water used in manufacturing, agriculture, and food preparation.
Contact Pesticide: A chemical that kills pests when it touches them, instead of by ingestion. Also, soil that contains the minute skeletons of certain algae that scratch and dehydrate waxy-coated insects.
Contaminant: Any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil.
Contamination: Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use. Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.
Contamination Source Inventory: An inventory of contaminant sources within delineated State Water-Protection Areas. Targets likely sources for further investigation.
Contingency Plan: A document setting out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to be followed in case of a fire, explosion, or other accident that releases toxic chemicals, hazardous waste, or radioactive materials that threaten human health or the environment. (See: National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan.)
Continuous Discharge: A routine release to the environment that occurs without interruption, except for infrequent shutdowns for maintenance, process changes, etc.
Continuous Sample: A flow of water, waste or other material from a particular place in a plant to the location where samples are collected for testing. May be used to obtain grab or composite samples.
Contour Plowing: Soil tilling method that follows the shape of the land to discourage erosion.
Controlled Reaction: A chemical reaction under temperature and pressure conditions maintained within safe limits to produce a desired product or process.
Conventional Filtration: (See: complete treatment.)
Conventional Pollutants: These may be in the form of organic waste, sediment, acid, bacteria, viruses, nutrients, oil and grease, or heat.
Conventional Site Assessment: Assessment in which most of the sample analysis and interpretation of data is completed off-site; process usually requires repeated mobilization of equipment and staff in order to fully determine the extent of contamination.
Conventional Systems: Systems that have been traditionally used to collect municipal wastewater in gravity sewers and convey it to a central primary or secondary treatment plant prior to discharge to surface waters.
Conventional Tilling: Tillage operations considered standard for a specific location and crop and that tend to bury the crop residues; usually considered as a base for determining the cost effectiveness of control practices.
Conveyance Loss: Water loss in pipes, channels, conduits, ditches by leakage or evaporation.
Cooling Tower: A structure that helps remove heat from water used as a coolant; e.g., in electric power generating plants.
Corrective Action: The 1984 Amendments to RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) (in terms of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Act) that require owners or operators of treatment, storage or disposal facilities to investigate and, as necessary, clean up releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents at or from their facilities, regardless of when the releases occurred. This cleanup of TSD facilities under these statutory authorities is known as RCRA Corrective Action. DEQ is authorized by EPA to implement this program through permits and EPA maintains the authority to issue RCRA CA Orders.
Corrosion: The dissolution and wearing away of metal caused by a chemical reaction such as between water and the pipes, chemicals touching a metal surface, or contact between two metals.
Corrosive: A chemical agent that reacts with the surface of a material causing it to deteriorate or wear away.
Cost/Benefit Analysis: A quantitative evaluation of the costs which would have incurred by implementing an environmental regulation versus the overall benefits to society of the proposed action.
Cost Recovery: A legal process by which potentially responsible parties who contributed to contamination at a Superfund site can be required to reimburse the Trust Fund for money spent during any cleanup actions by the federal government.
Cost Sharing: A publicly financed program through which society, as a beneficiary of environmental protection, shares part of the cost of pollution control with those who must actually install the controls. In Superfund, for example, the government may pay part of the cost of a cleanup action with those responsible for the pollution paying the major share.
Cover Crop: A crop that provides temporary protection for delicate seedlings and/or provides a cover canopy for seasonal soil protection and improvement between normal crop production periods.
Cover Material: Soil used to cover compacted solid waste in a sanitary landfill.
Cradle-to-Grave or Manifest System: A procedure in which hazardous materials are identified and followed as they are produced, treated, transported, and disposed of by a series of permanent, linkable, descriptive documents (e.g. manifests). Commonly referred to as the cradle-to-grave system. (See: manifest system.)
Criteria: Descriptive factors taken into account by the Environmental Protection Agency in setting standards for various pollutants. These factors are used to determine limits on allowable concentration levels, and to limit the number of violations per year. When issued by EPA, the criteria provide guidance to the states on how to establish their standards.
Criteria Pollutants: As specified under the Clean Water Act, conventional contaminants include suspended solids, coliform bacteria, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, and oil and grease. (See: non-criteria pollutants.)
Critical Effect: The first adverse effect, or its known precursor, that occurs as a dose rate increases. Designation is based on evaluation of overall database.
Criterion Continuous Concentration: An estimate of the highest concentration of a material in surface water to which an aquatic community can be exposed indefinitely without resulting in an unacceptable effect.
Crop Consumptive Use: The amount of water transpired during plant growth plus what evaporated from the soil surface and foliage in the crop area.
Crop Rotation: Planting a succession of different crops on the same land area as opposed to planting the same crop time after time.
Cross Contamination: The movement of underground contaminants from one level or area to another due to invasive subsurface activities.
Cross-Connection: Any actual or potential connection between a drinking water system and an unapproved water supply or other source of contamination.
Crumb Rubber: Ground rubber fragments the size of sand or silt used in rubber or plastic products, or processed further into reclaimed rubber or asphalt products.
Cubic Feet Per Minute (CFM): A measure of the volume of a substance flowing through air within a fixed period of time. With regard to indoor air, refers to the amount of air, in cubic feet, that is exchanged with outdoor air in a minute's time; i.e. the air exchange rate.
Cullet: Crushed glass.
Cultural Eutrophication: Increasing rate at which water bodies "die" by pollution from human activities.
Cumulative Exposure: The sum of exposures of an organism to a pollutant over a period of time.
Curb Stop: A water service shutoff valve located in a water service pipe near the curb and between the water main and the building.
Curbside Collection: Method of collecting recyclable materials at homes, community districts or businesses.
Cuttings: Spoils left by conventional drilling with hollow stem auger or rotary drilling equipment.
Cyclone Collector: A device that uses centrifugal force to remove large particles from polluted air.